Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone.Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains.
Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago.
Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as brazing, compression fitting, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding.These joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing#Materials
An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle, though 22.5° elbows are also made.
The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed, etc.
When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow. Elbows are categorized based on various design features as below: Long Radius (LR) Elbows ? radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter Short Radius (SR) Elbows ? radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter 90 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 90° 60 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 60° 45 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 45° A 90 degree elbow is also called a "90 bend" or "90 ell".
It is a fitting which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow in the pipe.
It is used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a "quarter bend".
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.